Address the underlying risk factor(s) in order to provide tailored patient/client-specific interventions.
Odd ratios and relative risk from:
Tinetti M, Kumar C.The patient who falls "it's always a tradeoff". JAMA.2010;303(3):258-266.
|Risk Factor||Relative Risk (RR)|
|History of previous falls||1.9-6.6|
(>4 medications daily)
|Multiple co-morbidities||no data|
|Reduced Sensation||no data|
|Decreased Muscle Strength||2.2-2.6|
|Home/Environmental Hazards||no data|
|Gait abnormalities/Balance impairments||1.2-2.2|
|Urinary Incontinence||no data|
|Symptoms of dizziness||no data|
|Abnormal heart rate and rhythm||no data|
|Receiving IV therapy and/or oxygen||no data|
|Post major medical procedure||no data|
The greater number of risk factors, the greater the risk of falling.
Tinetti ME, Speechley M, Ginter SF. Risk factors for falls among elderly persons living in the community. N Engl J Med. 1988;319(26):1701-1707.
Relative risk is the risk of the outcome in one group compared with another group.
Example of relative risk: An individual with a history of falls would be 1.9-6.6 times more likely to fall than an individual without a history of falls.
Zhang J, Yu K. What's the relative risk? JAMA. 1998; 280(19): 1690-1691.